blood count itself, but complications such as leukostasis, tumor lysis syndrome ( TLS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) put the. Pol Merkur Lekarski. Jan;6(31) [Leukostasis syndrome in a case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia]. [Article in Polish]. DurzyƄski T(1), Konopka L. It can induce leukostasis, tumor lysis syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and has significant prognostic implications with.

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Leukocytapheresis is often used prophylactically to prevent leukostasis or to improve its clinical symptoms. Patients with AML, especially M5, have the highest risk. Similarly, variations in endothelial cell surface expression of adhesion molecules may also explain why some areas, including the pulmonary and CNS vasculature, seem more prone to complications of leukostasis than others.

Clinical signs of leukostasis are related to the organ of injury.

This procedure is often utilized for asymptomatic hyperleuckocytosis patients who have induction chemotherapy postponed for patient specific factors. Although patients often experience symptomatic relief, there appears to be no effect on long-term survival.

The pathophysiology of leukostasis is not well understood. Transfusions before leukocytapheresis are not recommended because this may worsen hyperviscosity. However, the impact of leukocytapheresis on early- and long-term mortality is controversial, with several studies producing conflicting results. In a study evaluating the impact of leukocytapheresis and cranial irradiation on early mortality and intracranial hemorrhage, no improvement in survival or syndrkme in leukowtasis hemorrhage was observed.

CrossRef Medline Google Scholar. Allergic disorders Asthma [3] Hay fever [3] Drug allergies [3] Allergic skin diseases [3] Pemphigus synrrome Dermatitis herpetiformis Parasitic infections [3] Some forms of malignancy Hodgkin’s lymphoma [3] Some forms of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma [3] Systemic autoimmune diseases [3] e.

Leukocytapheresis for the treatment of hyperleukocytosis secondary to acute leukemia

Semin Thromb Hemost 33 4: Chronic myeloid leukemia – The majority of patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia usually suffer from hyperleuckocytosis. This section is empty.

This review focuses on pulmonary leukostasis in hyperleukocytosis and describes the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and management of this condition. There are no randomized data to support the selection of a particular cytoreductive therapy and thus there is no standard of care. The pathophysiology of hyperleukocytosis and leukostasis is not well established. The main advantage of HU is that it can be administered immediately and continued until the WBC is in an acceptable range.


Acute lymphblastic Leukemia – 20 to 30 percent of patients newly diagnosed with this type of leukemia have hyperleukocytosis. They might be associated with the disease itself, with complications from treatment, or with the consequences of an impaired immune status. Citrate acid citrate dextrose is the anticoagulant most commonly used to prevent clotting of the apheresis circuit. However, citrate binds calcium and can lead to symptoms of hypocalcemia, including tingling and numbness in the perioral area or periphery, lightheadedness, nausea, and altered taste.

Leukapheresis should be considered to be a temporizing measure. Leukostasis is different from leukemic infiltration which is a neoplastic process where leukemic cells invade organs. Measures to consider include 1 use of cytotoxic chemotherapy; 2 hydroxyurea; and 3 leukapheresis.

Other manifestations include acute limb ischemia, priapism, retinal hemorrhage, retinal vein thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome. However, the use of this method, although effective in decreasing leukocyte count, remains somewhat controversial. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia – Exact percentage of people diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia is unknown but a significant number also suffer from hyperleuckocytosis.

Options to consider Hydroxyurea HU is a well-tolerated oral option for therapy that has demonstrated effectiveness in blast count reduction. Neurological signs – visual changes, headache, dizziness, tinnitusgait instability, confusion, somnolencecoma.

Galacki DM An overview of therapeutic apheresis in pediatrics. Zofran can cause headache. IVFs crystalloid should be started promptly. Leukostasis occurs more commonly with a high WBC count and with leukemias of monocytoid lineage such as acute myelomonocytic leukemia, which is a reflection of the nature of the leukemic blasts. Shelat SG Practical considerations for planning a therapeutic apheresis procedure.

Venous access is usually the rate-limiting step in any apheresis procedure. Hypoxic events in body regions may increase the high metabolic activity of dividing blast cells and lead to an increase in cytokine production.

Treatment of leukostasis Once patients have developed signs and symptoms consistent with clinical leukostasis, leukocytoreduction must be implemented emergently.


Symptoms can range from mild confusion to somnolence to stupor and coma. Biopsies acquired are examined for damage to microvasculature, which serves as evidence of hypoxia through the identification of leukocyte blockage within the tissue.

In addition, for leukocytoreduction in the setting of hyperleukocytosis and leukostasis, hydroxyurea HU is a well-tolerated oral option for therapy that has demonstrated effectiveness in blast count reduction. The leukosgasis may not always be in a global distribution and patients may present with focal neurological deficits.

Blood products especially PRBCs may increase serum viscosity and precipitate and exacerbate leukostasis. The differential for respiratory failure in the patient with acute leukemia is broad and beyond the context of this section.

Wikipedia articles needing reorganization from December Articles to be expanded from June All articles to be expanded Articles with empty sections from June All articles with empty sections Articles using small message boxes. Vascular complications are also associated with leukostasis: Nervous system symptoms include mental status changes, delirium, confusion, headache, dizziness, and tinnitus.

Again, although leukocytapheresis significantly lowered the risk of early death, long-term survival was similar in leukotsasis 2 groups. Pulmonary embolus hypercoagulable state.

Hyperleukocytosis, leukostasis and leukapheresis: practice management.

This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia’s layout guidelines. Laboratory abnormalities seen in those with leukostasis include a markedly elevated white blood cell count hyperleukocytosis and electrolyte abnormalities seen with tumor lysis syndrome such as high concentrations of potassiumphosphorusand uric acid in the blood and a low level snydrome calcium in the blood due to being bound by high amounts of circulating phosphorus.

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No sponsor or advertiser has participated in, approved or paid for the content provided by Decision Support in Medicine LLC. This is the best means to address the issues of hyperleukocytosis and clinical leukostasis.