Identifizierung von Arzneistoffen: Stas-Otto-Gang, Dünnschichtchromatographie, Farbreaktionen, UV- und IR-Spektroskopie. Front Cover. Harry Auterhoff. Identifizierung von Arzneistoffen by Harry Auterhoff, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. : Identifizierung von Arzneistoffen. () by Harry Auterhoff; Karl-Artur Kovar; Claus O. L. Ruf and a great selection of similar New.
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Durch Haushalte wurde das hinsichtlich des Umweltverbleibs und -verhaltens wenig untersuchte Antiepileptikum Gabapentin in hohen Mengen in das Abwasser eingetragen. Insbesondere Quetiapin wurde in psychiatrischen Fachkliniken und Pflegeheimen als Substanz mit hohen Verbrauchsmengen und hohem Emissionspotential identifiziert.
Ausgehend von diesen Erkenntnissen wurden Gabapentin und Quetiapin tiefergehend hinsichtlich ihres Verbleibs und ihres Verhaltens in der aquatischen Umwelt charakterisiert. Beide Arzneistoffe wurden bei verschiedenen Startkonzentrationen zur Simulation eines technischen Behandlungsverfahrens mit UV-Licht bestrahlt.
Die photolytischen Gemische von Gabapentin sind nicht besser als Gabapentin selbst abbaubar und die Phototransformationsprodukte wurden im Closed Bottle Test ebenfalls nicht eliminiert. Auch das photolytische Gemisch von Quetiapin im Closed Bottle Test war nicht besser biologisch abbaubar als Quetiapin selbst. Die Langzeit-Leuchthemmung und die Zellvermehrungshemmung im Leuchtbakterientest stiegen im Verlauf der Photolyse von Gabapentin durch Bildung von Phototransformationsprodukten.
The pharmaceutical consumption of drugs acting on the nervous system neurological drugs keeps changing due to the broad variety of active pharmaceutical ingredients on the market.
In addition, the main pathways of these drugs to the aquatic environment have also not been clearly understood. Relevant pathways via households diffuse sources or via health institutions punctual sources have been discussed in literature.
The objective of this study was to develop a new method for determining the pharmaceutical consumption and emissions in households and health institutions. In this method, the respective extent of emissions was determined by calculating wastewater concentrations and comparing consumption data of active pharmaceutical ingredients.
As a result, the pharmaceutical consumption patterns in psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes were different from households and general hospitals. Moreover, with the provided method, the contribution of health institutions and households to the total discharge of neurological drugs to wastewater could be determined. Likewise, active pharmaceutical ingredients that can be found in high amounts in wastewater could be identified.
Identifizierung von Arzneistoffen | Open Library
Gabapentin was discharged in high amounts via households. The significance of health institutions and their contributions of pharmaceuticals to wastewater was very low for all types of institutions. However, some active pharmaceutical ingredients, especially neurological drugs, may have a greater impact in some regional catchment areas.
Quetiapine, for instance, was discharged in greater amounts at psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes than by households. Based on these findings, gabapentin and quetiapine were investigated regarding their fate and effects in the arzneistofven environment.
Both active pharmaceutical ingredients were exposed to UV light at different initial concentrations to simulate a water treatment method. Kdentifizierung addition, gabapentin, quetiapine and their photolytic mixtures were assessed regarding their biodegradability in the Closed Bottle Test and the Manometric Respirometry Test according to OECD guidelines.
The luminescent bacteria test and the umu-test were also performed to give information about the toxicological properties.
The structures of photo- and biotransformation products were elucidated by means of high-resolution mass spectrometry. As a result, for gabapentin and quetiapine no mineralization or elimination occurred after min of photolysis. Phototransformation products were mostly identical at different initial concentrations. Photolytic mixtures of gabapentin were not better biodegradable than gabapentin and phototransformation products were not eliminated in the Closed Bottle Test. The photolytic mixture of quetiapine was also not better biodegradable in Closed Bottle Test compared identifizierrung.
In the Closed Bottle Test and the Manometric Respirometry Test, different biotransformation products were formed azneistoffen quetiapine and its phototransformation products.
HPLC Methods on Drug Analysis
The main biotransformation product BTP was detected in several river water samples. BTP is also known as a human metabolite. Longterm luminescence and growth inhibition in the luminescent bacteria test increased during UV treatment of gabapentin due to the formation of phototransformation products.
It can, therefore, be assumed that phototransformation products are more toxic than gabapentin. In contrast, the cytotoxicity of quetiapine, which was shown to be cytotoxic, was not affected by UV treatment. For gabapentin, quetiapine and their photransformation products, no genotoxicity in the umu-test was observed. As the pharmaceutical market is constantly changing, it is necessary to regularly check for active pharmaceutical ingredients in wastewater by means of a consumption-based mass balance.
Using the method developed and recommended in this study, the kind and the amount of pharmaceuticals emitted from diffuse and from punctual sources could be determined and predicted.
Active pharmaceutical ingredients, including those examined here, metabolites, and transformation products should be examined carefully because the commonly required environmental risk ifentifizierung studies do not provide sufficient evaluation identifizieeung.
Moreover, these studies are not always readily accessible. Technological mitigation measures such as UV treatment should be considered critically, since the elimination of active pharmaceutical ingredients is not always sufficient and as phototransformation products with unknown properties are very likely to be formed. Instead, health identifizieruny, scientists, and professionals dealing with the disposal of effluents need to become aware of the potential impact of active pharmaceutical ingredients on environment.